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Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DSSS)

Name of questionnaire Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DSSS)
Type of questionnaire-description,age Measures the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress in ages 14 and above
Number of items 42 items
Number of domains & categories 3 scales
Name of categories/domains /scales Depression, anxiety, stress scales
Scaling of items 0-3 Likert scale
Scoring available: with permission or free Free
Scoring Test-retest reliability Yes 
Scoring Internal consistency Yes, Cronbach's alpha scores rate the Depression scale at 0.91, the Anxiety scale at 0.84 and the Stress scale at 0.90
Validity Yes. In addition, DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the Bbeck Depression Inventory
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) 28 languages
Developer name Peter Lovibond, PhD
Developer contact information p.lovibond@unsw.edu.au
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Public domain; free; manual requires a fee
Limitations Measures symptoms over prior 1 week
Link to the questionnaire (if available) Click Here to View the Questionaire
Other comments Patient-rated scale, also available in a short version (DASS21)
References (including original publication) Lovibond, S.H. & Lovibond, P.F. (1995).  Manual for the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales. (2nd. Ed.)  Sydney: Psychology Foundation.
Lovibond, P.F. & Lovibond, S.H. (1995).  The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335-343.
Brown TA, Chorpita BF, Korotitsch W, Barlow DH. Psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) in clinical samples.  Psych Behav Res Ther. 1997 Jan;35(1):79-89.