- Integrated Disease Management for Primary Care
- Ethical and Palliative Care Issues
- Management of Stable COPD
- Clinical Assessment Testing and Differential Diagnosis
- Epidemiology Risk Factors and Natural History
- Definition Diagnosis and Staging
- Pathology Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
For Health Professionals
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) runs an insidious course, measured over years, with an often undiagnosed initial phase. See ASSESSMENT | MEDICAL HISTORY. See ASSESSMENT | EXPOSURE HISTORY.
- Its presence can be suspected after a directed clinical evaluation and then confirmed physiologically with a simple spirometry. See TESTING | ALL PATIENTS. See TESTING | SELECTED PATIENTS.
- Chest radiography helps in differential diagnosis. See DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
- Other tests may be useful to better determine the phenotype and physiological characteristics of individual patients.