Long Term Oxygen Therapy


  1. Report of the Medical Research Council Working Party. Long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy in chronic hypoxic cor pulmonale complicating chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Lancet 1981; 1: 681-685.
  2. Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial Group. Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93: 391-398.
  3. Weitzenblum E, Sautegeau A, Ehrhart M, Mammosser M, Pelletier A. Long-term oxygen therapy can reverse the progression of pulmonary hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 493-498.
  4. Oswald-Mammosser M, Weitzenblum E, Quoix E, et al. Prognostic factors in COPD patients receiving long-term oxygen therapy: importance of pulmonary artery pressure. Chest 1995; 107: 1193-1198.
  5. Zielinski J, Tobiasz M, Hawrylkiewicz I, Sliwinksi P, Palasiewicz G. Effects of long-term oxygen therapy on pulmonary hemodynamics in COPD patients: a 6-year prospective study. Chest 1998; 113: 65-70.
  6. MacNee W, Wathen CG, Flenley DC, Muir AD. The effects of controlled oxygen therapy on ventricular function in patients with stable and decompensated cor pulmonale. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 1289-1295.
  7. Timms RM, Khaja FU, Williams GW. Hemodynamic response to oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Inter Med 1985; 102: 29-36.
  8. Balter MS, Daniak N, Chapman KR, Sorba SA, Rebuck AS. Erythropoietin response to acute hypoxemia in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Chest 1992; 102: 482-485.
  9. Zielinski J. Effects of long-term oxygen therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Curr Opin Pulm Med 1999; 5: 81-87.
  10. Mannix ET, Manfredi F, Palange P, Dowdeswell IRG, Farber MO. Oxygen may lower the O2 cost of breathing in chronic obstructive lung disease. Chest 1992; 101: 910-915.
  11. Dean NC, Brown JK, Himelman RB, et al. Oxygen may improve dyspnea and endurance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and only mild hypoxemia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 941-945.
  12. Somfay A, Porszasz J, Lee SM, Casaburi R. Dose-response effect of oxygen on hypertension and exercise endurance in nonhypoxaemic COPD patients. Eur Respir J 2001; 18: 77-84.
  13. Eaton T, Garrett JE, Young P, et al. Ambulatory oxygen improves quality of life of COPD patients: a randomised controlled study. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 306-312.
  14. Krop HD, Block AJ, Cohen E. Neuropsychologic effects of continuous oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1973; 64: 317-322.
  15. Heaton RK, Grant I, McSweeny AJ, Adams KM, Petty TL. Psychologic effects of continuous and nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 1983; 143: 1941-1947.
  16. Grant I, Heaton RK. Neuropsychiatric abnomalities in advanced COPD. In: Petty TL, ed. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. New York, Marcel Dekker, 1985; pp. 355-373.
  17. Plywaczewski R, Sliwinski P, Nowinski A, Kaminksi D, Zielinski J. Incidence of nocturnal desaturation while breathing oxygen in COPD patients undergoing long-term oxygen therapy. Chest 2000; 117: 679-683.
  18. Fletcher EC, Luckett RA, Goodnight-White S, Miller CC, Qian W, Costarangos-Galarza C. A double-blind trial of nocturnal supplemental oxygen for sleep desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a daytime Pa,O2 above 60 mm Hg. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145: 1070-1076.
  19. Kimura H, Suda A, Sakuma T, Tatsumi K, Kawakami Y, Kuriyama T. Nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation and prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and late sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis. Intern Med 1998; 37: 354-359.
  20. Chaouat A, Weitzenblum E, Kessler R, et al. A randomized trial of nocturnal oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Eur Respir J 1999; 14: 997-999.
  21. Liker ES, Karnick A, Lerner L. Portable oxygen in chronic obstructive lung disease with hypoxemia and cor pulmonale. Chest 1975; 68: 236.
  22. Rooyackers JM, Dekhuijzen PN, Van Herwaarden CL, Folgering HT. Training with supplemental oxygen in patients with COPD and hypoxaemia at peak exercise. Eur Respir J 1997; 10: 1278-1284.
  23. Carter R. Oxygen and acid-base status: measurement, interpretation, and rationale for oxygen therapy. Chapter 5. In: Tiep BL, ed. Portable Oxygen Therapy: Including Oxygen Conserving Methodology. Mt. Kisco, NY, Futura Publishing Co, 1991; pp. 136-138.
  24. Webb RK, Ralston C, Runciman WB. Potential errors in pulse oximetry. Part II: Effects of changes in saturation and signal quality. Anesthesia 1991; 46: 207-212.
  25. Petty TL, Stanford RE, Neff TA. Continuous oxygen therapy in chronic airway obstruction: observations on possible oxygen toxicity and survival. Ann Intern Med 1971; 75: 361-367.
  26. Dunn WF, Nelson SB, Hubmayrm RD. Oxygen-induced hypercarbia in obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1991; 144: 526-530.
  27. Aubier M, Murciano D, Milie-Emili M, et al. Effects of the administration of oxygen therapy on ventilation and blood gases in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during acute respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 122: 747-754.
  28. Aubier M, Murciano D, Fournier M, et al. Central respiratory drive in acute respiratory failure of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1980; 122: 191-199.
  29. Sassoon CS, Hassell KT, Mahutte CK. Hyperoxic-induced hypercapnia in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 907-911.
  30. West GA, Primeau P. Nonmedical hazards of long-term oxygen therapy. Respir Care 1983; 28: 906-912.
  31. Kory RC, Bergmann JC, Sweet RD, et al. Comparative evaluation of oxygen therapy techniques. JAMA 1962; 179: 123-128.
  32. Gibson RL, Comer PB, Beckman RW, et al. Actual tracheal oxygen concentration with commonly used therapy. Anesthesiology 1976; 44: 71-73.
  33. Hoffman LA. Novel strategies for delivering oxygen: reservoir cannula, demand flow, and transtracheal oxygen administration. Respir Care 1994; 39: 363-376.
  34. Soffer M, Tashkin DP, Shapiro BJ, Littner M, Harvey E, Farr S. Conservation of oxygen supply using a reservoir nasal cannula in hypoxemic patients at rest and during exercise. Chest 1985; 89: 806-810.
  35. Campbell EJ, Baker D, Crites-Silver P. Subjective effects of humidification of oxygen for delivery by nasal cannula. Chest 1988; 93: 289-293.
  36. Carter R, Williams JS, Berry J, Peavler M, Griner D, Tiep B. Evaluation of the pendant oxygen-conserving nasal cannula during exercise. Chest 1986; 89: 806-810.
  37. Tiep BL, Christopher KL, Spofford BT, Goodman J, Worley PD, Macey SL. Pulsed nasal and transtracheal oxygen delivery. Chest 1990; 97: 364-368.
  38. Yaeger ES, Goodman S, Hoddes E, Christopher KL. Oxygen therapy using pulse and continuous flow with a transtracheal catheter and a nasal cannula. Chest 1994; 106: 854-860.
  39. Tiep BL, Barnett J, Schiffman G, Sanchez O, Carter R. Maintaining oxygenation via demand oxygen delivery during rest and exercise. Respir Care 2002; 47: 887-892.
  40. Heimlich HJ, Carr GC. The Micro-Trach: a seven-year experience with transtracheal oxygen therapy. Chest 1989; 95: 1008-1012.
  41. Hoffman LA, Johnson JT, Wesmiller SW, et al. Transtracheal delivery of oxygen: efficacy and safety for long-term continuous therapy. Ann Otolol Rhinol Laryngol 1991; 100: 108-115.
  42. enditt J, Pollock M, Roa J, Celli B. Transtracheal delivery of gas decreases the oxygen cost of breathing. Am Rev Respir Dis 147; 1993: 1207-1210.
  43. Christopher KL, Spofford BT, Petrun MD, McCarty DC, Goodman JR, Petty TL. A program for transtracheal oxygen delivery: assessment of safety and efficacy. Ann Intern Med 1987; 107: 802-808.
  44. Kampelmacher MJ, Deenstra M, van Kesteren RG, Melissant CF, Douze JMC, Lammers J-WJ. Transtracheal oxygen therapy: an effective and safe alternative to nasal oxygen administration. Eur Respir J 1997; 10: 828-833.
  45. O’Donohue WJ. Effect of arterial oxygen therapy on increasing arterial oxygen tension in hypoxemia patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease while breathing ambient air. Chest 1991; 100: 968-972.
  46. Petty TL, Casaburi R. Recommendations of the Fifth Oxygen Consensus Conference. Writing and organizing committees. Respir Care 2000; 45: 957-961.