Instructions for Contributors
The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology focuses on papers that use cellular, biochemical, developmental, genetic, immunologic, and molecular approaches to understand structure and function of the respiratory system under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. Acceptance of manuscripts is based on scientific excellence, significance, and clarity of presentation. The Journal also publishes Editorials and state-of-the-art Translational Reviews. Translational Reviews are initiated by submitting authors, but consultation with the Editor (firstname.lastname@example.org) before submission is recommended.
All manuscripts are processed as rapidly as possible in an attempt to complete the review process in less than four weeks. If an author believes that a manuscript is of special merit to warrant accelerated publication, this should be noted in the cover letter to the Editor. If the request is approved by the Editor, the manuscript will be preferentially handled as a Rapid Communication as described below. The Journal is published in electronic format and may be viewed online at http://www.atsjournals.org/ or at http://intl.atsjournals.org/
To submit your manuscript, go to Manuscript Central at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/atsjournals. Within this site (ScholarOne) you may use the "Create a New Account" icon to create a user account if you do not already have an existing account. The system automatically designates the individual who uploads the manuscript as the "Corresponding Author." To assure the uninterrupted flow of correspondence during the Peer Review process, all users should avoid creating more than one account. If you are not sure if you already have an existing account or forgot your User ID and Password, please e-mail Ms. Fay Ling in Technical Support (email@example.com). Technical support is available from Monday through Friday, 9:00 am to 5:00 pm, Eastern Standard Time, by e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org), or by phone (212) 315-8638. Manuscripts that do not conform to guidelines may not be processed.
All correspondence related to manuscripts should be addressed to:
Kenneth B. Adler, Ph.D., Editor
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
ATS Peer Review Office
New York, NY 10004
Tel: (212) 315-8619
FAX: (212) 315-8616
Upon submitting any revised version of a manuscript that has been approved for submission, all Authors must complete the Assignment of Copyright Form and email to email@example.com. The Assignment of Copyright Form in PDF is available at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/societyimages/atsjournals/COPYRIGHTFORM.pdf. When the work is the product of more than one author, each author must complete and send a form.
The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology does not publish original contributions that contain a significant portion of material that has been published or submitted for publication elsewhere, with the exception of abstracts containing no more than 400 words. After publication of original material in the Journal, it is unacceptable to subsequently publish any part of the same material in another journal without the written permission of the ATS. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information. If concerns exist, the Editor of the Journal reserves the right to determine what constitutes significant duplicate publication. For additional information, please refer to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' guidelines at http://www.icmje.org/index.html.
Before submission, authors should review their manuscripts to ensure that there is no major repetition of language or content from previously published papers. To assist in this process, all reviewed and revised original contributions and review articles will be put through a program called iThenticate (http://www.ithenticate.com/) in ScholarOne, which checks manuscripts against a database of published articles to find duplicated text. This is intended not only as a way to detect plagiarism, but also as a way to provide feedback to authors in order to avoid significant manuscript content overlap, the publication of manuscripts that significantly overlap with their own previously published work.
Public Access Policy
If any of the authors have been supported financially by the NIH to conduct the research that is reported in the article, they should indicate this on the copyright form and provide the grant number and contact name on the title page of the manuscript. The ATS will submit an electronic copy of the final published version on the authors' behalf to the NIH National Library of Medicine's (NLM) and PubMed Central (PMC) at a time in compliance with NIH requirements. If any of the authors of a manuscript have been supported by the Wellcome Trust or other member of the Untied Kingdom PMC Funders Group, then the ATS will submit an electronic copy of the final published version to the United Kingdom PMC in compliance with requirements.
A cover letter must accompany each manuscript and should be entered in the "Author Comments" box, one of the data entry screens appearing during the online submission process. It should identify the corresponding author, and should state that the material is original and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere. It must also state that no part of the research presented has been funded by tobacco industry sources. The letter must include a statement indicating that all authors have read the manuscript and approve its submission. Requests for rapid publication should be made in the cover letter together with a brief explanation of the rationale ( see Rapid Communications below).
All authors are required to upload disclosure forms when their manuscript is submitted to the Journal. Please upload these forms along with your other manuscript files, choosing File Designation: "Disclosure of Financial Interest Form(S)." The ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest is preferred and is available for downloading from ATS Manuscript Central (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ajrccm). Journal editors, deputy editors, associate editors, and peer reviewers also make disclosures to ATS, according to instructions they receive, at time of appointment.
The Journal assumes that all individuals have "competing interests" that may at times cause conflicts of interest. A conflict of interest depends on the situation, and not on the character or actions of the individual. The ATS defines conflict of interest as a "divergence between an individual's private interests and his or her professional obligations such that an independent observer might reasonably question whether the individual's professional actions or decisions are motivated by personal gain" and/or a "financial or intellectual relationship that may impact an individual's ability to approach a scientific question with an open mind."
After an article has been published, readers sometimes write to a journal because they have reason to believe that authors failed to disclose financial relationships with an entity that has an interest in the subject of the article. The Journal will handle these inquiries according to the recommendation of the American Medical Association. Queries will be forwarded to authors, and authors will be required to provide a written explanation. New disclosures will be published in the correspondence columns of the Journal.
The Journal strongly opposes contractual agreements that deny investigators the right to examine data independently or to submit a manuscript for publication without first obtaining the consent of the sponsor. Researchers should not enter into agreements that interfere with their access to data or their ability to analyze data independently, to prepare manuscripts, and to publish them. Authors should describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the report for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so state. If a study is funded by an agency with a proprietary or financial interest in the outcome of the study, the corresponding author must include the following statement in the cover letter and "Author Comments" section upon submission: "I had full access to all of the data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis."
Author disclosures will be considered in relation to the submitted manuscript by the reviewers as part of the review process. A limited number of authorized ATS staff will assist with reviewing disclosures and preparing a statement to be published as a footnote in the official publication.
On their forms, authors will be asked to make a disclosure of relevant institutional relationships with commercial entities, if known to the author (note: ATS does not require individuals to make specific inquiries of the authorities of their institution).
Additionally, as part of submitting an article, authors are required to disclose any relationship with the tobacco industry or its affiliates and subsidiaries that benefited any of the manuscript authors or the tobacco industry in its promotion of tobacco products. The Journal also continues its policy of not accepting contributions that are funded by tobacco industry sources, and does not accept any contribution submitted by an author or co-author that has currently, or had within the 12 months prior to submission, a relationship with a tobacco entity.
If you have any questions about submitting disclosures, please contact Marc Bendian, Peer Review Manager, at email@example.com.
Human and Animal Study Guidelines
The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology endorses recommendations concerning human research described in the Declaration of Helsinki. Manuscripts that do not conform to these standards may be rejected on that basis. Manuscripts reporting human research must state within the text that the institutional review board for human studies approved the protocols and that informed written consent was obtained from the subjects or their surrogates if required by the institutional review board.
Animal studies must conform to NIH guidelines (Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. NIH publication No. 86-23. Revised 1985. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402-9325). Humane care for animals is required, and details should be provided. For example, paralyzing agents are not an acceptable alternative to anesthesia and should be used only in conjunction with suitable anesthetic agents.
Genomics Data in ATS Journals
1. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure that all data collected and analyzed in their experiments adhere to the Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) guidelines. The MIAME checklist is available at:
We require that authors submit all primary microarray data to one of the public repositories (ArrayExpress, GEO, or CIBEX), in a format that complies with the MIAME guidelines, by the time of publication.
2. Nucleic acid or protein sequences should be deposited in EMBL or Genbank databases and accession numbers submitted prior to publication of manuscripts.
Criteria For Authorship
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work, the data analysis, and the preparation of the manuscript, and have reviewed and approve the manuscript as submitted to take public responsibility for it. This would include substantial participation in some or all of the following aspects of the work relating to the manuscript:
involvement in the conception, hypotheses delineation, and design of the study
acquisition of the data or the analysis and interpretation of such information
writing the article or substantial involvement in its revision prior to submission
All manuscripts should be concisely written and should contain complete documentation of results. References should be selected to document key ideas and observations. Manuscripts must be written in American English. All submissions should include a cover letter, and all original manuscripts should include, in the following order: (a) title page, (b) abstract, (c) keywords, (d) text, (e) acknowledgments, (f) references, (g) footnotes, (h) tables, (i) figure legends, and (j) figures.
The title page should include a concise and descriptive title (limited to 100 characters, including spaces); the first name, middle initial, and last name of each author; the departmental and institutional affiliation of each author; and the telephone and fax numbers as well as the e-mail address of the corresponding author. (The corresponding author listed on the title page does not have to be the same person listed as the corresponding author for Peer Review in the ScholarOne system.) A running title of no more than 50 characters (including characters and spaces) be included. Please note that the title that appears on the manuscript itself must be identical to the manuscript title entered into the ScholarOne site.
The abstract summarizing the rationale, methods, results, and conclusions of the study should be limited to 250 words or less. References should be avoided but, if used, must be presented in full rather than by a reference number. The abstract should be written as a single paragraph.
A list of keywords for inclusion in the published article should be included. These will be published just below the abstract on the first page of the article.
A list of abbreviations is attached at the end of these Instructions. Other terms frequently used should be written out completely at first use, abbreviated in parentheses, and abbreviated thereafter. A separate section listing all abbreviations used in the manuscript, however, is not required.
Source of Materials
Generic names of drugs should be used instead of trade names. The location (city, state, country) of a manufacturer listed in the text should be provided after the first reference to the manufacturer.
The text is limited to 5,000 words. If a manuscript exceeds this word limit, authors are encouraged to submitted additional material as an Online Supplement (see guidelines below).
The text should include the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods (not to exceed 500 words), Results, and Discussion. If a manuscript varies from this format, the rationale for the change should be explained in the cover letter. Subheadings may be used if desired.
Acknowledgments to individuals and research support should be placed in a single paragraph after the Discussion. Grant and funding information, however, should be acknowledged as a footnote on the title page of the manuscript, rather than in this section.
References and Supplemental Information
References should be limited to 50; exceeding this limit may delay manuscript processing. References should be typed double-spaced beginning on a separate sheet and numbered in the order that they appear in the text. All authors' names (do not use "et al."), complete article titles, and inclusive page numbers should be cited. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in Index Medicus. If an article cited in the References is in press, one copy must be attached at the end of the manuscript submitted online. Unpublished observations and personal communications should be referred to as such in the text and not be referred to in the reference list. Submit written permission when citing a personal communication. Manuscripts "submitted for publication" are considered unpublished work and should not be included in the reference list. They should be cited in parentheses in the text as "unpublished data" or "unpublished observations." If overlapping work or supplemental information is discussed within the manuscript text, a labeled copy of the overlapping article or supplemental information should be attached at the end of the submitted manuscript file.
Examples of References
Evans CM, Williams OW, Tuvim MJ, Nigam R, Mixides GP, Blackburn MR. Mucin is produced by Clara cells in the proximal airways of antigen-challenged mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2004;31:382-394.
(This follows the general NCBI/PubMed style.)
Articles in Press
Kimelman D, Kirschner M. Synergistic induction of mesoderm by FGF and TGF-B and the identification of an mRNA coding for FGF in the early Xenopus embryo. Cell (In press)
Weibel ER. Stereological Methods. London: Academic Press; 1979.
Articles in Books
Burgess JK, McParland BE. Analysis of gene expression. In: Conn MP, editor. Laser capture microscopy. San Diego: Academic Press; 2002. p. 259-270.
Carré PC, King TE Jr., Mortenson RL, Riches DWH. Overexpression of the interleukin 8 and fibronectin genes by alveolar macrophages in bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia [abstract]. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:A479.
Government or Association Reports
U.S. Public Health Service. Smoking and Health. A Report of the Surgeon General. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979. DHEW Publication No. (PHS)79-50066.
Journal Article in Electronic Format
Manoloff ES, Francioli P, Taffé P, van Melle G, Bille J, Hauser PM. Risk for Pneumonocytis carinii transmission among patients with pneumonia: a molecular epidemiology study. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Jan [cited 2003 Feb 14] Vol. 9(1). Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no1/02-0141.htm
Risk for Pneumonocytis carinii transmission among patients with pneumonia: a molecular epidemiology study. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] Jan [cited Feb. 14, 2003] Vol. 9(1). Available from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no1/02-0141.htm
If you use use a citation manager to organize and style your references, you must make sure that you have downloaded the corrected style. For EndNotes you may go directly to http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyledetail.asp; for Reference Manager, go to http://www.refman.com/ and select “Get the Latest Styles and Filters” in the yellow box on the left.
Authors are responsible for obtaining proper written permission to reprint materials from any other copyrighted sources. This permission must be obtained prior to submission and included with the manuscript upon submission. Credit should be given within the manuscript for use of reprinted materials.
Footnotes should be numbered consecutively. Designate footnotes to tables by these superscript symbols and in this order: *, † , ‡ , §, ||, , **, , etc.
Tables should be typed double-spaced on separate sheets. Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers and should have a short title. Use superscript symbols for footnotes (see Footnotes). Each table should be self-explanatory and should not appear as part of a figure or be included within the figure legend. All tables should appear directly before the figure legend section and must be submitted as a word processing file, not as art.
Figures should be limited to a total number of 7 and no more than two journal pages, including legends. Figures should be numbered with Arabic numbers, and composite figures should be labeled with uppercase letters (e.g., Figure 3B) and should correctly correspond to their citations within the text. Each figure should appear on its own separate page. The labels and text within a figure should not be larger than the type used in the text of the published article: no larger than 10 point (2.5 mm in height) and no smaller than 6 point (1.5 mm in height). The size of the symbols must also be in scale with the figure, and all figures within an article should be the same point size. To further save space, all figure titles and explanations of symbols should appear only in the figure legend , not in the actual figure. Labels should be placed within the body of the figure, not outside of it. Figures should not exceed the page dimensions of 17.4 x 21.3 cm (6 7/ 8 x 8 3/ 8 inches); single-column figures should not exceed 8.4 x 21.3 cm (3 5/ 16 x 8 3/ 8 inches); and double column figures should not exceed 17.4 x 21.3 cm (6 7/ 8 x 8 3/ 8 inches). It is preferred that figures be submitted at final size. Light and electron micrographs should be composed to fill the width of either a single or double column. Photographs (micrographs and gels) should be carefully cropped and be of sufficient magnification to illustrate important observations. Micrographs should include internal scales; legends should not contain the magnification. If needed, figures may be reduced for better layout. For computer-generated figures, avoid using screens and light dot-pattern shading because they do not reproduce well. Instead, differentiate bars in a graph by using hatch marks or other large patterns.
Legends should present a short title and sufficient explanation to be intelligible without reference to the text.
The submission of the Revised Manuscript starts from the Corresponding Author's "Author Center"; the process is initiated by clicking on the manuscript title in the "Manuscripts to be Revised" field. The revised Manuscript ID number is set automatically by the ScholarOne system (the character R1, R2, or R3 is appended to the previous manuscript ID). You will see a confirmation appear on the screen once your revision is fully submitted and an emailed confirmation will also be sent to you. Please note that the author is required to input "Responses to Reviewers" and "Responses to the Associate Editor" before the revision is submitted. If you have any questions, please contact Ms. Fay Ling in Technical Support at firstname.lastname@example.org or call (212) 315-8638.
The ATS is pleased to announce that beginning December 2011, color art will be free for ATS members; nonmember charges will be reduced by more than 10%; $625 for the first page and $400 for subsequent pages. If you are not a member of the ATS and would like to join, please visit the ATS "Become a Member" page, or contact email@example.com or 212-315-8685.
Corresponding authors with manuscripts accepted for publication will be asked to confirm in writing their acceptance and responsibility for payment of this color art billing. If the color quote is not accepted, the author must indicate whether the figure should be printed in black and white or be deleted. There is no charge for having color figures appear in an online data supplement. However, if a figure in the main part of the article appears in color online, it must also appear in color in the printed version of the article.
Submitting Figures for Provisionally Accepted Manuscripts
Digital figures must be submitted as TIFF, press-quality PDFs, or EPS files; color art may only be submitted in the RGB format. Fonts in EPS files should be converted to "create outlines" or "convert to paths," as this will eliminate the need to download the fonts for outputting. However, if graphs or charts were originally made in a Microsoft Office file (Word, PowerPoint, Excel, etc.) please submit the figures in those formats. Do not save Microsoft Office files as TIFFs or JPEGs. Black and white line art must be processed at a minimum of 900 dpi (data per inch), halftones at 300 dpi, combos (color image + type, or black and white image + type) at 500 dpi, and color at 300 dpi. Please consult the Submission of Digital Art Guidelines for the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.
The instructions to authors to send the large file(s):
Go to http://dropbox.yousendit.com/americanthoracicsociety, no Log In is needed
Choose “ATS PeerReviewManuscript” from the drop-down menu of the “Recipient”.
Enter the Subject in the ‘Subject box’ and a short message in the ‘Message box’. (Authors should put the manuscript ID in Subject box and a short message in “Message box” for you to identify the files)
Upload the file(s), then click the “Send it” button at the bottom of the screen.
Electronically submitted figures must be accurate representations of actual research images. Specific features within an image should not be enhanced, obscured, moved, deleted, or added. The grouping of images from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels, fields, or exposures must be made explicit by using dividing lines (or other graphic means of demarcation) and must also be stated in the figure legend. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable if applied to the entire image, as long as these techniques do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent any information present in the original, including backgrounds (backgrounds should not be faded out to the extent that they are undetectable). Nonlinear adjustments (e.g., changes to gamma settings) as well as other manipulations such as pseudo-coloring must be disclosed in the figure legend. Authors should always have access to their original unprocessed images to provide to the Editor upon request. All figures will undergo image analysis for signs of inappropriate manipulation; if there are any questions about a figure, the Editor may contact the corresponding author at any point, even after the publication of the article.
The author will automatically receive a confirmed Manuscript ID number once a manuscript has been uploaded onto the ScholarOne website. Dates of submission of original and revised manuscripts will be published. Submission of a manuscript to the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology is interpreted as indicating that the data are original and have not been submitted or published elsewhere (including websites) except as an abstract.
Major Technological Advances
Manuscripts reposting major technological advances that do not have a testable hypothesis will be considered. These manuscripts must be limited to 3,000 words with 3 figures. The author should choose the "MA" designation for manuscript type when the manuscript is first uploaded.
Concise reports of original observations of sufficient importance where rapid publication would substantially enhance research in the field will be considered for rapid review and publication. These reports should be definitive studies, fully documented, and referenced. Editors will provide decisions within 3 weeks of receipt and accepted manuscripts that require limited revision will be published 3 to 4 months after receipt. Editorial decisions may not be accompanied by the usual detailed reviewer comments.
Request for and justification of rapid publication should be made in the author's cover letter. In addition, the author should choose the "RC" designation for manuscript type when the manuscript is first uploaded.
The entire publication, including figures, tables, acknowledgments, footnotes, and references, is limited to 4,000 words with a 4 figure limit. Micrographs are counted as one page and each graph is counted as one-half page.
Submission Fees (before acceptance)
Page Charges (after acceptance)
Color cover illustrations will be chosen each month from an article appearing in the Journal. The choice of cover art illustration will be made by the Editor. Authors are also encouraged to submit suitable high-quality color figures that do not appear in the actual article. These figures should be related to the topic of their article and be accompanied by a short explanatory legend. Color figures will be published on the cover without additional charge; normal plate charges will continue to apply for color figures used within an article. The dimensions of cover illustrations should be 7-1/2 X 10 inches (width X height). These figures should be submitted according to the Submission of Digital Art Guidelines for the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.
The Editor invites editorials. Invited editorials should be submitted online to Manuscript Central. When uploading, authors can choose the manuscript type Editorial (ED) and indicate in the cover letter that this is an invited Editorial.
The goal of an Editorial is to summarize and translate important topics of research in respiratory biology. These short commentaries will review the historic development of information on the topic, the current understanding of the topic, and its relevance to basic lung biology and disease. Areas of importance for future studies may be identified as well. Topics for Editorials will be selected to highlight an interesting research publication in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology and will be published in the same issue.
Editorials should be approximately 800-1000 words and contain no more than 16 references. The title for an editorial should not exceed 85 characters (count letters and spaces). No abbreviations should be included in the title.
Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor provide a format to discuss previously published material or other controversies. Presentations of unpublished investigations are not appropriate as Letters. Letters that confirm previously published material without adding significant new information are less likely to be published. Because of space limitations, priorities will be assigned to submitted Letters, and publication will depend on this priority rating.
Letters to the Editor should be no longer than 400 words and cite no more than 6 references. The title should be brief and reflect the content of the letter. Illustrations and tables are discouraged.
Letters to the Editor can be uploaded via ScholarOne as manuscript type Letter-to-the-Editor (LE).
The goal of Translational Reviews is to highlight an important scientific topic in respiratory cell or molecular biology and to provide a perspective on this topic for normal and abnormal function of the respiratory system. These reviews therefore aim to translate state-of-the-art basic research in the respiratory sciences into a form that is relevant to respiratory function and/or disease. The reviews should define why a topic is of importance, should present the current understanding of this topic, and should indicate the future directions of research in the area. Authors are encouraged to use their own work to illustrate general concepts in the field.
Translational Reviews should be 3,000 or 4,000 words of text (including references). Illustrative material, especially summary diagrams, is strongly encouraged. References should be representative rather than exhaustive. The review should also include an abstract limited to 250 words.
Online Data Supplement
Authors may submit supplemental material for posting on the online data supplement, including additional text, tables and figures (and supporting information), as well as video and audio files. In addition, Excel spreadsheets may also be submitted if it is necessary to include large datasets that would not easily convert to a PDF Format. The supplemental material must be appended to the main manuscript in one file (except for videos and other media that would not convert to PDF format). The cover sheet should identify the material as "online data supplement" and indicate the manuscript title and authors. This material will also be peer reviewed.
One important use of the online supplements might be to include an extended Materials and Methods section for which there is not sufficient room in the print version.
Supplemental material must have an independent reference section, sequentially numbered as "E1, E2." Figures and tables should be labeled "Figure E1", "Table E1," etc.
If supplementary material is included with an original submission, it must be included again when the revised manuscript is submitted. The staff will create the hypertext link between the Online Data Supplement and the online version of the article.
Articles in Press
Upon acceptance for publication, articles are posted online within days of acceptance as Articles in Press (http://ajrcmb.atsjournals.org/articlesinpress.shtml). Please note that these articles have not yet been copyedited or proofread. Final online and print publication of a manuscript will differ slightly from Articles in Press as a result of copyediting; there may be differences in the quality and position of the graphics.
The Articles in Press are citable, searchable, and establish publication priority. The official publication date appears below the title followed by the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), an automatically generated unique identifier for intellectual property in the digital environment.
The American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology no longer mails hardcopy galley proofs to the Corresponding Author. Instead, once the article has been typeset, the Corresponding Author will receive an e-mail containing a live URL link to a PDF file of the typeset article. The e-mail also contains detailed instructions on making corrections.
An article published in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology may not be discussed by journalists or presented in other public media, such as websites, before the article is posted on the Journal's Articles in Press website. It is permissible to present the material contained in the article at a scientific meeting. The ATS may refuse to publish a manuscript, despite acceptance for publication by an editor, if the contained information has been disseminated prematurely in the media. Unless otherwise noted, Articles in Press are not under media embargo once they appear online. Please refer any questions to Keely Savoie, firstname.lastname@example.org (or call 212-315-8620).(Reprints of these Instructions may also be obtained from the Peer Review or Editorial Office).
Last Updated: August 2010
Å, angstrom (10 -8 cm)
AA, arachidonic acid
ADP, adenosine diphosphate
AMP, adenosine monophosphate
cAMP, cyclic AMP
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase
BCG, Calmette-Guerin bacillus
bp, base pair
BSA, bovine serum albumin
°C, degree Celsius
cDNA, complementary DNA
CFA, complete Freund's adjuvant
CFU, colony-forming unit
Con A, concanavalin A
cpm, counts per minute
cps, counts per second
CTP, cytidine triphosphate
cycle/min, cycle(s) per minute
cycle/s, cycle(s) per second
DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
dpm, disintegrations per minute
dps, disintegrations per second
EBV, Epstein-Barr virus
EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGTA, ethyleneglycol- bis-(β-aminoethyl
ether)- N, N'-tetraacetic acid
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM, electron microscopy
°F, degree Fahrenheit
FACS, fluorescent-activated cell sorter
FBS, fetal bovine serum
FCS, fetal calf serum
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate
GTP, guanosine triphosphate
HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution
Hepes, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine- N'-ethane sulfonic acid
HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography
HSA, human serum albumin
IEF, isoelectric focussing
IU, inernational unit(s)
K d, dissociation constant
K i, inhibition constant
Km, Michaelis constant
kbp, kilobase pair(s)
mAb, monoclonal antibody
MEM, Eagle's minimum essential medium
mol wt, molecular weight
M r, relative molecular mass
N, normal (concentration of ionizable groups)
n, number in a study or group
NAD +, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH, NAD + reduced
NADP, NAD + phosphate
NADPH, NADP reduced
ND, not determined
NP-40, Nonidet P-40
NS, not significant
OD, optical density
PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
PCA, perchloric acid
PG, prostaglandin (also PGE, PGF, etc.)
pI, isoelectric point
Pipes, [(1,4-piperazinebis (ethane sulfonic acid)]
PMA, phorbol myristate acetate
PMN, polymorphonuclear leukocyte
PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
r, correlation coefficient
RBC, red blood cell
RNA, ribonucleic acid
mRNA, messenger RNA
tRNA, transfer RNA
RNP, ribonucleic protein
rpm, revolutions per minute
s, sedimentation coefficient
S, Svedberg unit of sedimentation coefficient
SD, standard deviation
SEM, standard error of the mean
SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate
SOD, superoxide dismutase
sp act, specific activity
SV-40, simian virus 40
t test, Student's t test
t 1/2, half-life, half-time
TCA, trichloroacetic acid
TdR, thymidine deoxyribose
TLC, thin layer chromatography
TRITC, tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate
Tris, tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane
UDP, uridine diphosphate
UDT, uridine triphosphateimage