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Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)

Name of questionnaire Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)
Type of questionnaire-description Assess morningness and eveningness. Questions are framed in a preferential manner, where  the respondent is asked to indicate when, for example, he/she would prefer to wake up or start sleep, rather than when he/she actually does. 
Number of items 19
Number of domains/categories Not applicable
Name of categories/domains   Not applicable
Scaling of items Numerical :Multiple choice, 4 point scale.  The sum gives a score ranging from 16 to 86; scores of 41 and below indicate "evening types",  scores of 59 and above indicate "morning types", scores between 42-58 indicate "intermediate types"; 49.8% of the total population was classified as morning type compared to 5.6% having an evening-type preference
Scoring available: with permission or free Information not available
Scoring test-retest reliability Not evaluated on the original version. 
Scoring Internal consistency Internal consistency very good in a New Zealand version, Cronbach α coefficient=0.83
Validity Original study in student population (18-32 years). Validated with oral temparature curves. Morning types had a significantly earlier peak time in the circadian peak than Evening types and tended to have a higher daytime temperature and lower post peak temperature. When re-examined, original criteria of Horne and Ostberg (1976) studies showed different validity  in different populations. In a validation study in a sample of middle-aged workers- (non-students): evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type.
Language English 
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Multiple: including French, Spanish, German, Turkish, Thai, Japanese and more
Developer name Horne JA and Ostberg O 
Developer contact information Department of Human Work Sciences, University of Luleå, S-95187 Luleå, Sweden.
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available No permission needed, electronic version available; Click Here to View Questionaire
References (original publication) Horne, J.A.; Östberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms". Int J Chronobiol 4 (2): 97–110. Taillard, Jacques; et al. (2004). "Validation of Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in a Middle-Aged Population of French Workers". Journal of Biological Rhythms 19 (1): 76–86. Paine SJ, Gander PH, Travier N.The Epidemiology of Morningness/Eveningness: Influence of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Factors in Adults (30-49 Years). J Biol Rhythms February 1, 2006 21: 68-76.
Limitations Questionaires assumes all individuals are on regular duirnal schedules
Link to the questionnaire (if available) http://www.cet.org
Other comments May consider using alternative modified versions if population does not have regular diurnal schedules , example: Preferences Scale



Last Reviewed: May 2015