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Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)

Name of questionnaire Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)
Type of questionnaire-description Assess morningness and eveningness. Questions are framed in a preferential manner, where the respondent is asked to indicate when, for example, he/she would prefer to wake up or start sleep, rather than when he/she actually does.  
Number of items 19
Number of domains/categories Not applicable
Name of categories/domains   Not applicable
Scaling of items Numerical : Multiple choice, 4-5 point scale.  The sum gives a score ranging from 16 to 86; scores of 41 and below indicate "evening types", scores of 59 and above indicate "morning types", scores between 42-58 indicate "intermediate types"; 49.8% of the total population was classified as morning type compared to 5.6% having an evening-type preference
Scoring available: with permission or free Information not available
Scoring test-retest reliability Not evaluated on the original version. 
Scoring Internal consistency Internal consistency very good in a New Zealand version, Cronbach α coefficient=0.83
Validity

Original study in student population (18-32 years). Validated with oral temparature curves. Morning types had a significantly earlier peak time in the circadian peak than Evening types and tended to have a higher daytime temperature and lower post peak temperature. When re-examined, original criteria of Horne and Ostberg (1976) studies showed different validity in different populations. In a validation study in a sample of middle-aged workers- (non-students): evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type.

In 14 studies that used the MEQ in individuals without a diagnosis of cricadian rhythm disorder and used objective circadian phase marker testing (e.g., core body temperature, DLMO), all studies found that subjects with a later circadian phase generally scored lower on the MEQ.  Pearson’s correlation coefficients ranged widely from -0.353 to -0.760 in studies, possibly due to differences in study populations and study conditions.  [ref 4]

Language English Some stem questions and item choices have been rephrased from the original instrument (Horne and Östberg, 1976) to conform with spoken American English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Multiple: including French, German, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Korean, Spanish, Thai, Turkish.
Developer name Horne JA and Ostberg O 
Developer contact information Department of Human Work Sciences, University of Luleå, S-95187 Luleå, Sweden.
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available No permission needed, electronic version available; Click Here to View Questionaire
References (original publication)
  1. Horne JA, Östberg O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms". Int J Chronobiol 4 (2): 97–110.
  2. Taillard J, et al. (2004). "Validation of Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in a Middle-Aged Population of French Workers". Journal of Biological Rhythms 19 (1): 76–86.
  3. Paine SJ, Gander PH, Travier N.(2006) The Epidemiology of Morningness/Eveningness: Influence of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Factors in Adults (30-49 Years). J Biol Rhythms  21: 68-76.
  4. Sack R, et al. (2007) Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag Disorders.  Sleep 30(11): 1460-1483.
  5. Cavallera GM, Boari G.  (2015) Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-EveningnessQuestionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault.  Med Sci Monit  21: 2685-93.
  6. Zacharia T, et al. (2014) Development and standardization of Morningess-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) in the Indian language Kannada.  Int Tinnitus J 19(1): 36-40.
  7. Lee JH, et al. (2014) Reliability and valididty of the Korean version of Morningess-Eveningness Questionnaire in adults aged 20-39 years.  Chronobiol Int 31(4): 479-86.
  8. Diaz-Morales JF , et al.  (2007)  Validity of the Morningess-Eveningness Scale for Children among Spanish adolescents.  Chronobiol Int. 24(3): 435-47.
Limitations Questionaires assumes all individuals are on regular diurnal schedules
Link to the questionnaire (if available) http://www.cet.org
Other comments

May consider using alternative modified versions if population does not have regular diurnal schedules, example: Preferences Scale, Munich ChronoType Questionnaire.
Reduced versions of the MEQ have been reported in some studies (e.g., Hungarian, Spanish, Polish, German  versions), with 4-6 questions, with modest correlation with the unabridged version. 

Last Reviewed: November 2016