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Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)

Name of questionnaire Morningness -Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ)
Type of questionnaire-description Assess morningness and eveningness. Questions are framed in a preferential manner, where  the respondent is asked to indicate when, for example, he/she would prefer to wake up or start sleep, rather than when he/she actually does. 
Number of items 19
Number of domains/categories Not applicable
Name of categories/domains   Not applicable
Scaling of items Numerical :Multiple choice, 4 point scale.  The sum gives a score ranging from 16 to 86; scores of 41 and below indicate "evening types",  scores of 59 and above indicate "morning types", scores between 42-58 indicate "intermediate types"; 49.8% of the total population was classified as morning type compared to 5.6% having an evening-type preference
Scoring available: with permission or free Information not available
Scoring test-retest reliability Not evaluated on the original version. 
Scoring Internal consistency Internal consistency very good in a New Zealand version, Cronbach α coefficient=0.83
Validity Original study in student population (18-32 years). Validated with oral temparature curves. Morning types had a significantly earlier peak time in the circadian peak than Evening types and tended to have a higher daytime temperature and lower post peak temperature. When re-examined, original criteria of Horne and Ostberg (1976) studies showed different validity  in different populations. In a validation study in a sample of middle-aged workers- (non-students): evening types were considered as scoring under 53 and morning types above 64, thus giving 28.1% morning type, 51.7% neither type, and 20.2% evening type.
Language English 
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Multiple: including French, Spanish, German, Turkish, Thai, Japanese and more
Developer name Horne JA and Ostberg O 
Developer contact information Department of Human Work Sciences, University of Luleå, S-95187 Luleå, Sweden.
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available No permission needed, electronic version available; Click Here to View Questionaire
References (original publication) Horne, J.A.; Östberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms". Int J Chronobiol 4 (2): 97–110. Taillard, Jacques; et al. (2004). "Validation of Horne and Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire in a Middle-Aged Population of French Workers". Journal of Biological Rhythms 19 (1): 76–86. Paine SJ, Gander PH, Travier N.The Epidemiology of Morningness/Eveningness: Influence of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Factors in Adults (30-49 Years). J Biol Rhythms February 1, 2006 21: 68-76.
Limitations Questionaires assumes all individuals are on regular duirnal schedules
Link to the questionnaire (if available)
Other comments May consider using alternative modified versions if population does not have regular diurnal schedules , example: Preferences Scale
Last Reviewed: June 2016