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Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

Name of questionnaire Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
Type of questionnaire-description,age Measures sleep disturbance and usual sleep habits during the prior month only
Number of items 19 items
Number of domains & categories Seven clinically derived domains of sleep difficulties:
Name of categories/domains   Sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep
efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medications, and
daytime dysfunction
Scaling of items 0-3 Likert Scale
Scoring available: with permission or free available, with permission
Scoring test-retest reliability Yes, correlation coefficient=0.85
Scoring Internal consistency Yes, Cronbach's alpha 0.83
Validity Yes, concurrent validity and discriminative validity; compared with clinical evaluation, sleep questionnaires, other questionnaires. Questionnable validity compared to polysomnography. PSQI not related to objective sleep measures (actigraphy, polysomnography) in community sample. 
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Brazilian Portuguese, Greek, Hebrew, Italian Japanese, Korean, Persian,  Spanish, Taiwanese, Thai, Urdu
Developer name Buysse DJ
Developer contact information for permission Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O'Hara Street; E-1127, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, Phone: (412) 246-6413, Email: buyssedj@upmc.edu
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available With permisssion: academic research and individual clinical practice: free of charge
Limitations
Link to the questionnaire (if available) http://www.sleep.pitt.edu/content.asp?id=1484&subid=2316
Other comments Self-administered; score of >5 has a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% to distinguish “poor” sleepers (depressed patients) from “good” sleepers (healthy subjects).
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Validated in elderly, PTSD, primary insomnia, cancer,TBI, COPD, IPF, OSA, pregnancy, fibromyalgia (Spanish version)
References (including original publication)

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ.  The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research.  Psychiatry Research 1989; 28:193-213.

Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Broocks A, Riemann D, Hohagen F. Test retest reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. in primary insomnia. J Psychosom Res 2002;53:737-40.

Hayashino Y, Yamazaki S, Takegami M, Nakayama T, Sokejima S, Fukuhara S.  Association between number of comorbid conditions, depression, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: results from a population-based survey.  Sleep Med 2010 Apr;11(4):366-71.

Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Hoch CC, Yeager AL, Kupfer DJ. Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep 1991 Aug;14(4):331-8.

Insana SP, Hall M, Buysse DK, Germain A.  Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder (PSQI-A) in U.S. male military veterans.  J Trauma Stress 2013; 26(2): 192-200.

Spira AP, Beaudreau SA, Stone KL, Kezirian EK, Lui LY, Redline S, Ancoli-Israel S, Ensrud K, Stewart A; Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

Insana SP, Hall M, Buysse DK, Germain A.  Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder (PSQI-A) in U.S. male military veterans.  J Trauma Stress 2013; 26(2): 192-200.