ATS Reading List

Smoking Cessation

Guidelines & Strategies

Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. The following website offers the latest comprehensive AHRQ guidelines. The "Abstract" and "Executive Summary" links on the left margin provide succinct summaries that integrate the use of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to smoking cessation.
Guideline Link

Rigotti NA. Strategies to help a smoker who is struggling to quit. JAMA. 2012; 308:1573-80. Comprehensive update of the strategies available to clinicians to assist smokers who are struggling to quit. Highlights that the simultaneous use of more than one form of nicotine replacement for greater than 12 weeks may increase the odds of success.
PMID: 23073954

Electronic Cigarettes

Schraufnagel DE, Blasi F, Drummond MB, et al. Electronic cigarettes. A position statement of the forum of international respiratory societies. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014; 190:611-8. Statement from a large consortium of respiratory societies argues the health consequences of e-cig use on an individual and societal basis have not been adequately studied and therefore advocates for restricted use of, or a ban on, e-cig use pending more safety information.
PMID: 25006874

Dinakar C, O’Connor GT. The health effects of electronic cigarettes. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375:1372-81. A review of the most recent literature regarding this growing public health issue.
PMID: 28032962

Non-pharmacologic interventions

Parkes G, Greenhalgh T, Griffin M, et al. Effect on smoking quit rate of telling patients their lung age: the Step2quit randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2008; 336:598-600. This RCT (n=561) evaluated the effect of telling smokers their lung age based on spirometry accompanied by graphic displays. Independently verified quit rates at 12 months in the intervention and control groups were 13.6% and 6.4% (p = .005), respectively.
PMID: 18326503
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Pharmacologic interventions

Single drug

Transdermal Nicotine Study Group. Transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation. Six-month results from two multicenter controlled clinical trials. JAMA 1991; 266:3133-8. This study assessed rates of continuous smoking abstinence among patients who had successfully quit after a 6-week trial of transdermal nicotine replacement. 26% of patients that had been randomized to 21 mg patches were not smoking at 6 months compared to 12% in the placebo group.
PMID: 1956099

Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M, et al. Varenicline, an alpha4-beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: a randomized, controlled trial. JAMA 2006; 296:47-55. This, along with another simultaneously published study by Jorenby DE et al in the same issue, randomized over 1000 patients to 12 weeks of varenicline (Chantix), bupropion, or placebo. Continuous abstinence for weeks 9 through 52 were 21.9% for varenicline, 16.1% for bupropion, and 8.4% for placebo (p = .057 for varenicline vs bupropion.
PMID: 16820546
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Anthenelli EM, Morris C, Ramey TS, et al. Effects of varenicline on smoking cessation in adults with stably treated current or past major depression: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:390-400. This double-blinded placebo-controlled trial of cigarette smokers with stably treated past or current major depression found significantly improved rates of tobacco use cessation without adverse psychological effects. Patients on antipsychotics medications were not included.
PMID: 24042367
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Kalkhoran S, Glantz SA. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2016; 4:116-28. This random effects meta-analysis of all publications from 2015 and earlier evaluated the odds of smoking cessation among current smokers using vs. not using e-cigarettes. Study design included control groups in 20 of the 38 included studies. Odds of quitting were 28% lower in those who used e-cigarettes compared with those who did not (OR 0·72, 95% CI 0·57-0·91).
PMID: 26776875
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Combination therapy

Jorenby DE, Leischow SJ, Nides MA, et al. A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. N Engl J Med 1999; 340:685-91. This trial randomized nearly 900 patients to bupropion, a nicotine patch, bupropion plus a patch, or placebo. 12 month cessation rates were 30.3% for bupropion, 16.4% for the patch, 15.6% for placebo, and 35.5% with combined bupropion and patch. 12% of patients did not tolerate bupropion.
PMID: 10053177
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Long-term effects of smoking cessation interventions

Anthonisen NR, Skeans MA, Wise RA, et al. The effects of a smoking cessation intervention on 14.5 year mortality. Ann Intern Med 2005; 142:233-9. This article is noteworthy for showing smoking cessation reduces mortality even when the intervention is successful in only a minority of patients. The study compared a 10-week intervention that combined counseling and nicotine gum with usual care among smokers with obstructive lung disease. Quit rates at 5 years were 21.7% and 5.4% in the intervention and usual care groups, respectively. At 14.5 years, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in the usual care group vs. the intervention group was 1.18 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.37).
PMID: 15710956
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Last Reviewed: June 2017