Sleep Related Questionnaires

Paediatric Sleep questionnaire (PSQ)

Name of questionnaire Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire
Type of original questionnaire-description, age/population The SRBD scale contains 22 symptom items that ask about snoring frequency, loud snoring, observed apneas, difficulty breathing during sleep, daytime sleepiness, inattentive or hyperactive behavior, and other pediatric OSA features.
Children aged 2±18 years who had polysomnographically-confirmed sleep disordered breathing (n = 54).
Number of items 22 symptom items
Number of domains & categories 3 domains
Name of categories/domains Subscales within the SRBD scale include a 4-item sleepiness scale, a 4-item snoring scale, and a 6-item in- attention/hyperactivity scale
Scaling of items Responses are "yes" = 1, "no" = 0, and "don't know"=missing. The mean response on nonmissing items is the score, which can vary from 0 to 1.
Scoring test-retest reliability The two administrations revealed a Spearman correlation coefficient r of 0.92 for the snoring scale (P < 0.0001), 0.66 for the sleepiness scale (P = 0.0010), 0.83 for the behavior scale (P < 0.0001), and 0.75 for the SRBD scale (P < 0.0001).
The mean differences between raw scores on successive administrations (2nd minus 1st) of each scale were 0.00±0.11, −0.04±0.23, 0.00±0.11, and −0.02±0.07, respectively, none of which approached statistical significance (paired t-tests, P >0.2 for each).
Scoring Internal consistency Cronbach's alpha for each scale: snoring scale, 0.86; sleepiness scale, 0.66; behavior scale, 0.84; and SRBD scale, 0.89.
Validity Sensitivity of 0.85 and a specificity of 0.87
Available forms (short and/or long etc.) One form
Language English
Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages) Portuguese, Chinese, Spanish, Turkish, Malay
Developer(s) name Ronald D. Chervin, M.D.
Developer contact information for permission Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann, Arbor, USA
Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available Freely available
Limitations No objective evaluation of sleep disordered breathing
Useful for epidemiological symptoms
Link to the questionnaire (if available)  
Other comments May be used in conjunction with objective testing of pediatric sleep disordered breathing
Can offer insight into comorbidities, long term prognosis and surgical responses
Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated Children with suspected sleep disordered breathing
References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)
  1. Chervin RD1, Hedger KDillon JEPituch KJ. Pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ): validity and reliability of scales for sleep-disordered breathing, snoring, sleepiness, and behavioral problems. Sleep Med. 2000 Feb 1;1(1):21-32.

  2. Certal V, de Lima FF, Winck JC, Azevedo I, Costa-Pereira A. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire into Portuguese language.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2015;79:175-8.

  3. Wang CH, Yang CM, Huang YS. The Validation and Reliability of Chinese Version of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire for Patients with Sleep Breathing Problem. Taiwan J Psychiatry. 2012;26:177–86.

  4. Tomás Vila M, Miralles Torres A, Beseler Soto B. Versión Española del Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. Un instrumento útil en la investigación de los trastornos del sueño en la infancia. Análisis de su fiabilidad.Ann Pediatr. 2007;66:121–8.

  5. Yüksel H, Söğüt A, Yılmaz O, Kutluay  Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the pediatric sleep questionnaire: a tool for prediction of sleep related breathing disorder. Tuberk Toraks 2011;59(3):236-41.

  6. Hasniah ALJamalludin ARNorrashidah AWNorzila MZAsiah KAnida AR et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and reliability of pediatric sleep questionnaire in assessment of sleep-disordered breathing in the Malay speaking population. World J Pediatr. 2012;8:38-42.

  7. Marcus CL, Moore RH, Rosen CL, Giordani B, Garetz SL, Taylor HG, et al. Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial (CHAT). A randomized trial of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2013;20;368:2366-76.

  8. Rosen CL, Wang R, Taylor HG, Marcus CL, Katz ES, Paruthi, et al. Utility of symptoms to predict treatment outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics. 2015 Mar;135(3):e662-71.

  9. Chervin RD, Ellenberg SS, Hou X, Marcus CL, Garetz SL, Katz ES, et al. Prognosis for Spontaneous Resolution of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children. Chest. 2015;148:1204-13.

Updated by Refika Ersu
Date of last update 01/2016