Sleep Related Questionnaires

Stop, Stop Bang

Name of questionnaire


Type of original questionnaire-description, age/population

Determines risk for sleep apnea, Predicts risk of post-operative complications in individuals with sleep apnea.

Number of items


Number of domains & categories

Not applicable

Name of categories/domains

Not applicable

Scaling of items


Scoring available: with permission or free

With permission through STOPBang.ca

Scoring test-retest reliability


Scoring Internal consistency



Validation in surgical patients and the Sleep Heart Health Study, endoscopy patients, sleep clinic patients, Asian population

Available forms (short and/or long etc.)

4 item STOP Questionnaire



Translations in other languages (if yes, then list the languages)

Chinese, Persian, Portuguese, Greek, French, Spanish, Afrikaans, Arabic, Bulgarian, Chinese, Czech, Dutch, Filipino, German, Hungarian, Italian, Korean, Malay, Polish, Romanian, Sami, Taiwanese, Turkish, Arabic

Developer(s) name

Frances Chung MBBS, FRCPC

Developer contact information for permission

Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network

McL 2-405, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, On, Canada M5T 2S8
Phone 416 603 5800 ext 5433
Fax 416 603 6494


Availability of questionnaire: needs permission from developer, cost or freely available

Needs permission from developer



Link to the questionnaire (if available)


Other comments

STOP-Bang questionnaire had higher sensitivity to predict moderate-to-severe (87.0%) and severe (70.4%) sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while the STOP screening tool had higher specificity to predict moderate-to-severe and severe SDB (93.2% for both). sensitivities for the STOP-Bang tool were higher in   validation studies in surgical patients in predicting moderate-to-severe (92.9%) and severe (100%) SDB. Used initially in surgical patients, but also in SHHS, endoscopy patients. Also studied in Asian population. 

Patient populations in who questionnaire has been validated

Used in perioperative population, Sleep Heart Health Study population, patients undergoing endoscopy, sleep clinic patients, multiple sclerosis patients, Chinese and Thai population.

References (including original publication, validity and reliability in different countries/languages, populations and long/short versions)

Chung, F., Yegneswaran, B., Liao, P., Chung, S. A., Vairavanathan, S., Islam, S., Khajehdehi, A., and Shapiro, C. M. STOP Questionnaire A Tool to Screen Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Anesthesiology 108, 812-821. 2008.

Silva GE, Vana KD, Goodwin JL, Sherrill DL, Quan SF. Identification of patients with sleep disordered breathing: comparing the four-variable screening tool, STOP, STOP-Bang, and Epworth Sleepiness Scales.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Oct 15;7(5):467-72.

Farney RJ, Walker BS, Farney RM, Snow GL, Walker JM. The STOP-Bang equivalent model and prediction of severity of obstructive sleep apnea: relation to polysomnographic measurements of the apnea/hypopnea index. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Oct 15;7(5):459-65B.

Vasu TS, Doghramji K, Cavallazzi R, Grewal R, Hirani A, Leiby B, Markov D, Reiter D, Kraft WK, Witkowski T. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and postoperative complications: clinical use of the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Oct;136(10):1020-4.

Simplifying STOP-BANG: use of a simple questionnaire to screen for OSA in an Asian population. Ong TH, Raudha S, Fook-Chong S, Lew N, Hsu AA. Sleep Breath. 2010 Dec;14(4):371-6. 

Abrishami A, Khajehdehi A, Chung F: A systematic review of screening questionnaires for obstructive sleep apnea.  Can J Anesth 2010; 57:423-38

BaHammam AS, Al-Aqeel AM, Alhedyani AA, Al-Obaid GI, Al-Owais MM, Olaish AH. The Validity and Reliability of an Arabic Version of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire for Identifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Open Respir Med J. 2015 Feb 27;9:22-9.

Alhouqani S, Al Manhali M, Al Essa A, Al-Houqani M. Evaluation of the Arabic version of STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea.
Sleep Breath. 2015 Mar 11, 1-6.]

Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K1, Montazeri A, Khajeh-Mehrizi A, Ghajarzadeh M, Alemohammad ZB, Aminian O, Sedaghat M.
The STOP-BANG questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Persian version in sleep clinic population. Qual Life Res. 2015 Aug;24(8):2025-30.

Reis R, Teixeira F, Martins V, Sousa L, Batata L, Santos C, Moutinho J. Validation of a Portuguese version of the STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea: Analysis in a sleep clinic. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition)
Volume 21, Issue 2, March–April 2015, 61–68.

Athanasia Pataka, Nikolaos Chavouzis, Katalin Fekete Passa, Vasilios Bagalas, Georgia Pitsiou, Ioannis Stanopoulos, George Kalamaras, Asimina Paspala, Evdokia Sourla, Eleni Vaitsi, and Paraskevi Argyropoulou
Validation of the stop bang questionnaire in a sleep clinic in Greece for the prediction of obstructive sleep apnea. Eur Respir J 2013 42:Suppl 57, P4052.

Ha SC, Lee DL, Abdullah VJ, van Hasselt CA.
Evaluation and validation of four translated Chinese questionnaires for obstructive sleep apnea patients in Hong Kong. Sleep Breath. 2014 Dec;18(4):715-21.

Luo J, Huang R, Zhong X, Xiao Y, Zhou J.
Value of STOP-Bang questionnaire in screening patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in sleep disordered breathing clinic. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014;127(10):1843-8.

Dias RA, Hardin KA, Rose H, Agius MA, Apperson ML, Brass SD. Sleepiness, fatigue, and risk of obstructive sleep apnea using the STOP-BANG questionnaire in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. Sleep Breath 2012 Dec 21;16(4):1255-65.


Updated by

Helena Schotland

The last date of update

October 2015